Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

21st Century Information Literacy & Inquiry: Scope & Sequence: Standard 1: Inquiry

Based on the New York City School Library System, Empire State Information Fluency Continuum. Licensed under Creative Commons.

The Stripling Cycle of Inquiry and Learning


In the Connect Phase, a student may ask:

  • What interests me about this idea or topic?

  • What do I already know or think I know about this topic?

  • What background information would help me get an overview of my topic?

  • Do I know enough about the idea or topic to ask good questions?

  • Am I interested enough in the idea or topic to investigate it? 


In the Investigate Phase, a student may ask:

  • What are all of the sources that might be used?

  • Which sources will be most useful and valuable?

  • How do I locate these sources?

  • How do I find the information within each source?

  • How do I evaluate the information that I find?

  • Have I located sources with diverse perspectives?

  • Have I found enough accurate information to answer all my questions?

  • Have I discovered information gaps and filled them with more research?

  • Have I begun to identify relationships and patterns and thoughtfully reacted to the information I found? 


In the Express Phase, a student may ask:

  • What type of product or presentation will allow me to present my conclusions and evidence effectively to the intended audience?

  • What technology will help me create a product or presentation?

  • How will I get help to revise and edit my product?

  • Have I organized the product/presentation to make my major points and present convincing evidence?

  • Does my product/presentation fulfill all the requirements of the assignment? 

Priority Benchmark Skills and Assessments by Grade Level

From Empire State Information Skills Benchmarks: Information Fluency: Priority Benchmark Skills and Assessements. Licensed under Common Core.

Standard 1 Inquiry:  Benchmark Skills and Assessments by Grade Level


In the Wonder Phase, a student may ask:
    • What intriguing questions do I have about the topic or idea?

    • Why am I doing this research?

    • What do I expect to find?
    • Can my question(s) be answered through investigation?
    • Will my question(s) lead me to answers that will fulfill my assignment or purpose for research? 


In the Construct Phase, a student may ask:
    • Have any main ideas emerged from the research?

    • Did I find enough evidence to form an opinion or support my thesis?

    • What organizational patterns or tools will help me make sense of my information?

    • Have I drawn conclusions that are supported by the evidence?

    • Have I organized my conclusions and evidence to present them effectively? 


In the Reflect Phase, a student may ask:
    • Is my product/presentation as effective as I can make it?

    • How well did my inquiry process go?

    • How can I get feedback on my final product to use in my next inquiry project?

    • What new understandings did I develop about the topic or idea?

    • What did I learn about inquiry?

    • What new questions do I now want to answer about the topic or idea?